In a large bowl, beat the softened cream cheese, sugar, and flour until smooth using a hand mixer.
Add eggs, sour cream, and vanilla. Mix on low speed for 10-15 seconds, then scrape the bottom and sides of the bowl. Mix again just until smooth, taking care not to overmix the cheesecake filling.
Add half of the filling to the prepared crust.
Add most of the frozen cookie dough balls and mini chocolate chips to the remaining cheesecake batter, reserving enough cookie dough balls and mini chocolate chips for decorating the top of the cheesecake. Stir to combine, then spoon this over the top of the plain cheesecake filling.
Wrap the bottom of the springform pan in a plastic slow cooker liner or two layers of foil, then place the cheesecake in a larger pan and carefully pour water around the edges for a waterbath, if using.
Place the cheesecake in the oven and bake for 80-90 minutes (if using a water bath) or 60-70 minutes (if baking without a water bath), just until the edges are set but the center of the cheesecake jiggles a bit.
Turn oven off and crack the door open (you may need to prop it with a wooden spoon). Let the cheesecake cool slowly for 30-60 minutes.
Remove cheesecake and cool completely on a wire rack. Place the cooled cheesecake in the fridge to chill all the way before slicing.
Decorate with sweetened whipped cream, reserved cookie dough balls, and mini chocolate chips, if desired.